Photovoltaic Modules 

Photovoltaic Modules


Solar Panel Technology

Solar Power Electricity

 

HQST 100W 12V Solar Panel Mono 100 Watts 12 Volts RV Boat Off Grid
$110.99
End Date: Tuesday Feb-21-2017 11:51:04 PST
Buy It Now for only: $110.99
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COMPLETE KIT 100 W Watt 100W Solar Panel + 1500W Inverter 12V RV Boat Off Grid
$345.99
End Date: Thursday Feb-23-2017 17:05:42 PST
Buy It Now for only: $345.99
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Mighty Max 100 Watts 100W Solar Panel 12V Poly Off Grid Battery Charger for RV
$99.95
End Date: Sunday Mar-19-2017 20:10:23 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $99.95
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HQST 100 Watts 100W Solar Panel 12V Poly Off Grid Battery Charger for RV Boat
$99.94
End Date: Friday Mar-3-2017 10:32:19 PST
Buy It Now for only: $99.94
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12 Volt 35 Watt Monocrystalline Solar Panel Photovoltaic Off Grid RV
$48.98
End Date: Thursday Feb-23-2017 6:35:37 PST
Buy It Now for only: $48.98
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Mighty Max 100 Watt 12 volt polycrystalline off grid solar panel
$99.95
End Date: Tuesday Mar-21-2017 3:59:09 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $99.95
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HQST 20A 20 Amp 12V/24V MPPT LCD Solar Panel Controller Solar Charge Regulator
$89.99
End Date: Friday Mar-10-2017 8:06:28 PST
Buy It Now for only: $89.99
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Renogy 50W Watts Solar Panel Monocrystalline Off Grid 12V RV Marine Boat
$79.99
End Date: Monday Feb-20-2017 9:15:52 PST
Buy It Now for only: $79.99
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HQST 50W Solar Panel 12V 50 Watts Lightweight for Yacht Boat RV Battery Marine
$91.99
End Date: Wednesday Feb-22-2017 23:49:43 PST
Buy It Now for only: $91.99
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Solar Panel 100 Watt Poly Kit 12V RV Boat 100W Off Grid System W/O Tray Cable
$149.99
End Date: Wednesday Mar-1-2017 11:35:55 PST
Buy It Now for only: $149.99
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PV SOLAR KIT: 100 W Watt 100Watts PV Solar Panel 12V RV Boat + Charge Controller
$129.95
End Date: Monday Mar-13-2017 8:57:01 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $129.95
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Renogy Solar Panel PV Off Grid RV Boat 2pcs 100W 12 Volt Mono Cells Charger
$264.99
End Date: Friday Mar-10-2017 15:46:27 PST
Buy It Now for only: $264.99
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Renogy 50W Watts Solar Panel Polycrystalline Off Grid 12V RV Marine Boat
$74.99
End Date: Tuesday Mar-7-2017 9:11:25 PST
Buy It Now for only: $74.99
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GENSSI® 100W Solar Panel 12V 12 Volt Poly Off Grid Battery Charger RV Boat
$99.85
End Date: Monday Mar-13-2017 11:42:37 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $99.85
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Renogy 20W Watts Mono Solar Panel Off Grid 12 Volt 12V RV Boat Home System
$49.99
End Date: Saturday Mar-4-2017 14:46:26 PST
Buy It Now for only: $49.99
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1- 160 Watt 12 Volt Battery Charger Solar Panel Off Grid RV Boat 160 watt total
$165.00
End Date: Monday Feb-27-2017 12:02:41 PST
Buy It Now for only: $165.00
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2- 160 Watt 12 Volt Battery Charger Solar Panel Off Grid RV Boat 320 watt total
$350.00
End Date: Wednesday Mar-22-2017 8:07:10 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $350.00
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Renogy 100W Watts 12V Monocrystalline Solar Panel Off Grid Kit for RV Boat
$184.99
End Date: Saturday Mar-4-2017 10:30:11 PST
Buy It Now for only: $184.99
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Renogy 100W Watt Solar Panel Mono 12V Volt for Off Grid RV Boat Battery Charge
$134.99
End Date: Tuesday Mar-7-2017 10:12:31 PST
Buy It Now for only: $134.99
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140W Watt 12V Volt Solar Panel RV Camping Off Grid Battery Boat Photovoltaic
$139.00
End Date: Thursday Mar-9-2017 9:55:43 PST
Buy It Now for only: $139.00
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New Mission Solar 320W Watts 24V Volts Monocrystalline Solar Panel Made In USA!
$175.00
End Date: Tuesday Mar-7-2017 12:00:39 PST
Buy It Now for only: $175.00
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Mighty Max 200 Watt Solar Panel Poly 2pc 100w Watts 12V RV Boat Home - 2 Pack
$194.95
End Date: Thursday Mar-2-2017 16:37:37 PST
Buy It Now for only: $194.95
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120 Watt 120W 12V 12 Volt Monocrystalline Flexible Bendable Solar Panel RV Boat
$139.00
End Date: Sunday Mar-5-2017 13:33:00 PST
Buy It Now for only: $139.00
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30W 30 Watt Solar Panel 12V 12 Volt Battery Charger Off Grid, RV, Boat, Gate
$50.99
End Date: Monday Feb-20-2017 14:34:09 PST
Buy It Now for only: $50.99
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HQST 10Amp PWM Smart Charge Controller LCD Display Solar Panel Battery Regulator
$14.99
End Date: Saturday Mar-4-2017 2:01:47 PST
Buy It Now for only: $14.99
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12V 5W Portable Solar Panel Power Battery Charger Backup for Car Boat Automobile
$15.99
End Date: Thursday Mar-9-2017 13:35:11 PST
Buy It Now for only: $15.99
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Trina 250W Poly Solar Panel Grade A 250 Watts UL Listed
$105.00
End Date: Friday Mar-17-2017 13:18:29 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $105.00
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12 volt dc 100 watt Solar panel polycrystaline photovoltaic PV Off Grid
$118.98
End Date: Monday Mar-13-2017 15:12:23 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $118.98
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Semi Flexible Frameless Solar Panel Mounting brackets - Mid and End NO HARDWARE
$3.00
End Date: Thursday Mar-16-2017 9:15:39 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $3.00
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solar panel mounting rack 5 ft rails for pv photovoltaic
$57.00
End Date: Tuesday Mar-7-2017 16:18:44 PST
Buy It Now for only: $57.00
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HQST 12V/24V MPPT 30A LCD Solar Panel Charge Controller Solar Regulator RV Boat
$103.99
End Date: Saturday Mar-18-2017 18:06:05 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $103.99
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Ring Solar Panel New
$58.66
End Date: Saturday Mar-11-2017 18:09:46 PST
Buy It Now for only: $58.66
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Solar Panel Mounting Brackets-Mid Clamp for Framed Panels
$1.80
End Date: Thursday Feb-23-2017 19:17:08 PST
Buy It Now for only: $1.80
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12 Volt 10 Watt Polycrystalline 36 Cell Solar Panel Photovoltaic PV 15 Watt Max
$44.98
End Date: Monday Mar-13-2017 8:55:47 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $44.98
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7 foot heavy duty solar panel mounting rack for pv photovoltaic rv boat
$147.98
End Date: Tuesday Feb-28-2017 16:00:38 PST
Buy It Now for only: $147.98
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Semi Flexible Frameless Solar Panel Mounting brackets - Mid and End NO HARDWARE
$3.25
End Date: Thursday Mar-16-2017 9:15:39 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $3.25
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Photovoltaic Modules

 These are assembled sets of interconnected solar cells. The photovoltaic modules are commonly known as solar panels and are used as a component in large photovoltaic systems to generate electricity by using light energy from the sun.

  This effect is called photovoltaic effect. A photovoltaic mainly consists of many assembled solar cells. It consists of a transparent front side, encapsulated solar cells and a back side.

 For one to use the cells in a practical demonstration, the cells must be

  • electrically connected to one another and the rest of the whole system
  • protected from moisture as the corrosion could damage the contacts.
  • protected from any mechanical damage from manufacture, transportation, installation and when in use.
  • Most modules are generally rigid but some are flexible, based on thin film cells.

 Thin Film modules

 Thin film cells are advanced third generation solar cells. The advantage is that they produce high efficiency energy conversion at a lower price.

 Third generation offers among others non semi conductor technologies, quantum dot, multi-junction cells and intermediate band solar cell.

Types of 3rd generation solar cells

  • A-SI
  • Cd Te (second generation)
  • CIGS( copper Indium gallium selenide, second generation
  • Nanocrystal solar cell. Of course the research is quite intensive, so expect unexpected and new emerging technology.

 Performance and life time

 The module performance is rated under Standard Test Conditions (STC)

Electrical characteristic of the module includes

  • nominal power measure in W
  • open circuit voltage
  • short circuit current measured in amperes
  • maximum power voltage
  • maximum power current and,
  • module efficiency

 Solar panels are made to withstand heat, cold, rain and hail storms for several years. Many modules come with warranties of guaranteed electrical production for 10 years at 90% of rated power out and 25 years at 80%. With more research and modern manufacturing technologies - expect prices to go down rather rapidly over the next 5-10 years.

 

 


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Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of ... E1038 - 10(2015) Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of Photovoltaic Modules to Hail by Impact with Propelled Ice Balls , hail resistance, ice ball ...

 

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